• Bethesda Acupuncture

Food as Medicine: Chrysanthemum Flowers


In China, a favorite summertime beverage is chrysanthemum tea. Chrysanthemum has been used in Asia and Europe for thousands of years to treat hypertension, angina, fever, and various inflammatory diseases.


Modern research shows that chrysanthemum has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, antiosteoporotic properties and effects. Chrysanthemum was also found to reverse multidrug resistance in human breast cancer cells. It also demonstrated anti-angiogenic and antiproliferative activities and showed benefits against cachexia.

Please choose dried organic chrysanthemum flowers, which may be found online for purchase or pre-ordered from our center.

Easy Chrysanthemum Tea


Ingredients:

  • 6 cups of spring water

  • 8 grams of dried chrysanthemum flowers

  • Optional: manuka honey

Steps:

  1. Boil spring water

  2. Place flowers in a tea bag or strainer

  3. Pour boiling water over tea

  4. Let steep for 5 to 10 minutes

  5. Strain out flowers and make more tea by adding more boiling water

  6. Flowers may be used 2 times a day, but must be refreshed after 12 hours

  7. Serve at any temperature

  8. Stir in manuka honey to taste

References:

Ukiya M, et al. Constituents of Compositae plants III. Anti-tumor promoting effects and cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines of triterpene diols and triols from edible chrysanthemum flowers. Cancer Lett. 2002;177:7-12.

Urzua A, Mendoza L. Antibacterial activity of fresh flower heads of Chrysantemum coronarium. Fitoterapia. 2003;74(6):606-8.

Kim IS, Koppula S, Park PJ, et al. Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat (CM) extract protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against MPP+-induced cytotoxicity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Dec 10;126(3):447-54.

Kim IS, Koppula S, Park PJ, et al. Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat (CM) extract protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against MPP+-induced cytotoxicity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Dec 10;126(3):447-54.

Cheng W, Li J, You T, Hu C. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of the extracts from the inflorescence of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 3;101(1-3):334-7.

Yang L, Wei DD, Chen Z, Wang JS, Kong LY. Reversal of multidrug resistance in human breast cancer cells by Curcuma wenyujin and Chrysanthemum indicum. Phytomedicine. 2011 Jun 15;18(8-9):710-8.

Lin HH, Charles AL, Hsieh CW, et al. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation. J Tradit Complement Med. Jan 2015;5(1):51-55.

Chen LX, Hu DJ, Lam SC, et al. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2’-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt-based assay. J Chromatogr A. Jan 8 2016;1428:134-142.

Bardaweel SK, Hudaib MM, Tawaha KA, et al. Studies on the In Vitro Antiproliferative, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activities Associated with Chrysanthemum coronarium Essential Oil. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:790838.

Kim KS, Lim DJ, Yang HJ, et al. The multi-targeted effects of Chrysanthemum herb extract against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Phytother Res. Sep 2013;27(9):1398-1406.

Pyee Y, Chung HJ, Choi TJ, et al. Suppression of inflammatory responses by handelin, a guaianolide dimer from Chrysanthemum boreale, via downregulation of NF-kappaB signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. J Nat Prod. Apr 25 2014;77(4):917-924.

Gu DR, Hwang JK, Erkhembaatar M, et al. Inhibitory Effect of Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura Extract on RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:509482.

Baek JM, Kim JY. Dual Effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Extract to Stimulate Osteoblast Differentiation and Inhibit Osteoclast Formation and Resorption In Vitro. 2014;2014:176049.

Luyen BT, Tai BH, Thao NP, et al. The anti-osteoporosis and antioxidant activities of chemical constituents from Chrysanthemum indicum flowers. Oxid Med Cell Longev. Apr 2015;29(4):540-548.

Hu CK, Lee YJ, Colitz CM, et al. The protective effects of Lycium barbarum and Chrysanthemum morifolum on diabetic retinopathies in rats. Vet Ophthalmol. Sep 2012;15 Suppl 2:65-71.

Yamamoto J, Tadaishi M, Yamane T, et al. Hot water extracts of edible Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. exert antidiabetic effects in obese diabetic KK-Ay mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2015;79(7):1147-1154.

Yamamoto J, Yamane T, Oishi Y, et al. Chrysanthemum promotes adipocyte differentiation, adiponectin secretion and glucose uptake. Am J Chin Med. 2015;43(2):255-267.

Suh KS, Rhee SY, Jung WW, et al. Chrysanthemum zawadskii extract protects osteoblastic cells from highly reducing sugar-induced oxidative damage. Int J Mol Med. Jul 2013;32(1):241-250.

Abd-Alla HI, Albalawy MA, Aly HF, et al. Flavone composition and antihypercholesterolemic and antihyperglycemic activities of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Z Naturforsch C. May-Jun 2014;69(5-6):199-208.

Chen SH, Sun YP, Chen XS. [Effect of jiangtangkang on blood glucose, sensitivity of insulin and blood viscosity in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. Nov 1997;17(11):666-668.

Cui Y, Wang X, Xue J, et al. Chrysanthemum morifolium extract attenuates high-fat milk-induced fatty liver through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-mediated mechanism in mice. Nutr Res. Mar 2014;34(3):268-275.

Kim DY, Won KJ, Yoon MS, et al. Chrysanthemum boreale flower floral water inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated migration and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Pharm Biol. May 2015;53(5):725-734.

Zheng C, Dong Q, Du Z, et al. Structural elucidation of a polysaccharide from Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers with anti-angiogenic activity. Int J Biol Macromol. Aug 2015;79:674-680.

Jing S, Chai W, Guo G, et al. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferative activity between Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers polysaccharides (KCCP) and fraction PII separated by column chromatography. Neural Regen Res. Apr 15 2016;1019:169-177.

Seo DW, Cho YR, Kim W, et al. Phytochemical linarin enriched in the flower of Chrysanthemum indicum inhibits proliferation of A549 human alveolar basal epithelial cells through suppression of the Akt-dependent signaling pathway. J Med Food. Dec 2013;16(12):1086-1094.

Ohsawa M, Murakami T, Kume K. Possible Involvement of Insulin Resistance in the Progression of Cancer Cachexia in Mice. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2016;136(5):687-692.

Du H, Li SS, Wu Q, et al. Analysis of active compounds and antioxidant activity assessment of six popular Chinese Juhua teas. Nat Prod Commun. Mar 2015;10(3):495-498.

Cheon YH, Park SH, Ahn SJ, et al. Anti-inflammatory components of Chrysanthemum indicum flowers. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Jan 15 2015;25(2):266-269.

Dufay S, Worsley A, Monteillier A, et al. Herbal tea extracts inhibit Cytochrome P450 3A4 in vitro. J Pharm Pharmacol. Oct 2014;66(10):1478-1490.

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